BS 1147:2010 pdf download – Portable ladders for fire service use
7 Extending ladder requirements
The force to fully extend the ladder shall not exceed 500 N for mechanically operated extending ladders and shall not exceed 260 N for push-up extending ladders.
The minimum line diameter shall be 8 mm for ladders up to 260 N to extend and 14 mm for ladders between 260 N and 500 N to extend.
Lines shall not obstruct the climbing of the ladder and, where they lie on the front face, a fitting shall be provided to secure the line.
The line shall be attached to the ladder such that the surplus does not foul its operation.
Cables shall have a:
minimum breaking load of 2 845 N including its attachments;
means of adjustment;
closed eyes when used on cable attachments;
pulley that is only removable by pulling it through the eye.
7.4 Additional safety requirements
Ladders shall be designed and constructed so that it cannot be over-extended.
When operating the ladder, it shall be designed and constructed in such a manner that if the rope is released in operation, the ladder shall stop or the section(s) shall be lowered in a controlled manner.
NOTE Compliance with this section should be without affecting the continued safe operation of the ladder.
Pawls shall be fitted two to a section, to hold the ladder at any extension at which the section rungs coincide.
Each pawl shall be capable of supporting the required loads (see Annex G) on its own.
NOTE 1 Pawls should be visible from the ground and when climbing the ladder.
NOTE 2 Pawls should preferably be independent but may be linked if desired.
Hooks, where fitted, shall conform to the following.
The tip of any hook shall be not less than 260 mm and not greater than 600 mm from the adjacent side of the ladder.
Roof ladder hooks shall be constructed so as to minimize damage to the roof surface when the hook comes into contact with the roof.
Where two hooks are fitted side by side the contact points shall be not less than 250 mm apart (see Figure 4).
The parts of all types of ladders in contact with the ground shall have non-skid fitments.
The fitting of wheels to ladders shall be allowed where these are considered necessary for the safe andsatisfactory operation of the ladder.
NOTE Where wheels are fitted, they should have a resilient solid contact surface, should be able to withstand atemperature (in air) of 80 °C without malfunctioning and should be fitted to the ladder in such a way as to enable theladder to roll up or roll down a wall or roof.
All ladders over 11 m in length shall be fitted with stabilizing means, which may, for example, be in the form ofa pole (see also Annex O).
Poles designed to form an integral part of the stabilizing means and/or used for handling the ladder intoposition shall have a non-slip grip surface extending from the bottom of the pole (closed where telescopic) fora distance of 2 000 mm.
Poles designed to form an integral part of the stabilizing means shall have non-slip feet at the bottom of eachpole.
Where poles are used as stabilizing means, the top section of the ladder should always rest on a structure.
11 Materials and finishes
where wood is used, this shall be in accordance with 3.1.4 of EN 131-2:1993.
NOTE Those parts of ladders liable to corrosion should have a protective finish and there should be no sharp edges or burrs which may present a hazard to the user.
Wooden ladders shall be finished in accordance with 3.3 of EN 131-2:1993.