BS 15110-2006 pdf download – Water quality — Guidance standard for the sampling of zooplankton from standing waters
5.1.2Other field equipment
Winch with line-length counter or line with length markings fitted with a shackle or similar device to enable theline to be joined to the net.
Draining cup with nylon netting, which is capable of being attached to the net either by means of a tighteningstrip or tape sewn into the net. The netting of the draining cup should have the same mesh size as the net.Adraining cup with hose and hose clamp can also be utilised.
Weight, e.g. a standard sounding lead weight.
Spray bottle with water for rinsing out the net and draining cup.
A small plastic funnel may be needed to transfer the sampled material to the sample bottle.
5.1.3 Optional equipment
Portable echo sounder or depth meter to estimate the water depth at a sampling site.The former may also beused to quantify large zooplankton species.
Global Positioning System (GPS) to define site location.5.2Quantitative sampling
5.2.1Sampling equipment
For this purpose various types of volume samplers (bottles/traps/tubes) can be used (e.g.Schindler-Patalastrap or modified Ramberg sampler) (Figure 1b and 1c). Plankton nets with a closure mechanism and built-inwater flow-through meter (e.g.Clarke-Bumpus sampler)(Figure 1d), plankton pumps (e.g.[10] or [14]) andflexible tubes (e.g. [9],[11]) can be used for obtaining vertically or horizontally integrated quantitativezooplankton samples. Echo sounder records can be used in the field to quantify large zooplankton species(e.g.Chaoborus).Several of the most widely used quantitative zooplankton samplers have been described indetail by [2] and [3].
Where volume samplers are concerned, a sampler should be chosen that allows a free flow of water when thesampler is not closed. lt should also be possible to close the sampler rapidly, and the sampler should be astransparent as possible (plexiglas walls) in order to prevent avoidance by large plankton species with goodvision and mobility.For the same reason, it is advantageous to use a sampler that is not too small (minimum5 l). In locations with large populations of algae(nutrient-rich lakes), however, it may be advantageous to usea smaller model of volume sampler (e.g. a tube sampler of 3 l).Such samplers may also be suitable for use inlakes in locations that require equipment to be carried over long distances.
Motorised plankton pumps with continuous flow-through are recommended rather than hand-poweredplankton pumps, because motorised pumps provide a regular flow, thus providing better estimates of thequantity and composition of the plankton. Large active plankton species are liable to be sampled lessefficiently using a plankton pump than by other types of quantitative samplers. The opposite can be the casefor small species. A large plastic funnel (diameter about 50 cm) at the end of the sampling tube may be usefulin order to prevent escape of “jumping” copepods.
For practical and safety reasons,when deep lakes are being sampled, it may be more appropriate to usesampling equipment that allows efficient sampling of the whole water column (e.g. a plankton net with aclosure mechanism or a plankton pump) rather than a volume sampler.
When shallow lakes or littoral areas with a great deal of vegetation are being quantitatively sampled the use of a volume sampler, plankton pump or flexible tube is recommended.
5.2.2 Other field equipment
The equipment listed in 5.1.2 (excluding the lead weight) and in addition a mixing vessel (e.g. plastic bucket or similar) to combine a number of individual samples into a single sample in the field. Conducting mixed samples may be necessary to reducing analysis times and costs.
If a volume sampler is being used (with the exception of a Schindler-Patalas trap) filtration equipment is also required to concentrate the samples. This may take the form of either a plankton net (mesh size 45 µm, or 90 µm if only crustacean plankton are being collected) or a large funnel with draining cup fitted with a netting.
5.3 Storage
Bottles (100 ml, 200 ml or 250 ml brown bottles with screw-tops) or glass vials for storing samples.
Labels or tape to attach to the outside of the sample bottles. Waterproof paper for labels to put inside the sample bottles.
Marker pen. If ethanol is being used, an alcohol-proof pen or pencil is recommended for both internal and external marking.
NOTE Plastic vials are not suitable for storing samples if Lugol’s Iodine is used as preserving solution.
6 Preserving solutions
6.1 General
A number of different preserving solutions with different areas of application are available. The advantages and disadvantages of each of these solutions are defined in Annex A