BS 5852:2006 pdf download – Methods of test for assessment of the ignitability of upholstered seating by smouldering and flaming ignition sources
1 Scope
This British Standard describes methods for assessing the ignitability of single material combinations, e.g. covers and fillings used in upholstered seating, or complete items of seating, when subjected either to a smouldering cigarette or to flaming ignition sources of thermal output ranging from that of a burning match to that approximating to the burning of four double sheets of full-size newspaper, as might be applied accidentally to any item of furniture.
NOTE 1 It does not necessarily cover ignition caused by deliberate acts of vandalism with arson. The following methods are described:
a) upholstered seating composites tested with flaming ignition sources (sources 2 to 7) (Clause 11);
b) complete items of upholstered furniture tested with smouldering or flaming ignition sources (sources 0 to 7) (Clause 12).
NOTE 2 Possible ways in which the standard can be used either to indicate the potential ignitability of components in conjunction with other specified materials or where more specific information is required about design features are given in Annex B.
2 Normative references
The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. BS EN 1021-1 Furniture – Assessment of the ignitability of upholstered furniture – Part 1: Ignition source: smouldering cigarette BS EN 1021-2 Furniture – Assessment of the ignitability of upholstered furniture – Part 2: Ignition source: match flame equivalent
3 Terms and definitions For the purposes of this British Standard, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1 ignition source source of energy which is used to ignite combustible materials or products
3.2 smouldering combustion of a material with or without the emission of light and generally evidenced by smoke and an increase in temperature but without a flame
3.3 progressive smouldering smouldering that is self-propagating, i.e. independent of the ignition source
3.4 flaming undergoing combustion in the gaseous phase with the emission of light and heat
3.5 flammability ability of a material or product to burn with a flame under specified test conditions
3.6 ignitability measure of the ease with which a material, product or component can be ignited so as to flame or progressively smoulder 3.7 test zone component and/or design feature of the test specimen which is nominated for localized testing
4 Criteria of ignition
NOTE 1 Ignition criteria are given for progressive smouldering and for flaming. These are both critical but are different modes of ignition and should be assessed separately.
NOTE 2 A flow diagram illustrating a systematic method for the detection of ignition throughout a test sequence for each type of ignition source is given in Figure 1, Figure 2 and Figure 3.
4.1 Progressive smouldering ignition
4.1.1 Upholstery composites For the purposes of testing the ignitability of upholstery composites (see Clause 11), all the following types of behaviour shall be deemed to be progressive smouldering ignition (but see also Clause 13):
NOTE In practice it has been found that there is usually a clear distinction between materials that smoulder and char under the influence of the ignition source but that do not propagate further (non-progressive) and those where smouldering develops in extent and spreads (progressive).
a) any test specimen that displays escalating smouldering combustion behaviour so that it is unsafe to continue the test and forcible extinction is required;
b) for the smouldering cigarette source 0: any test specimen that produces externally detectable amounts of smoke, heat or glowing within the period from the extinction of the source until 60 min after placement of the source;
c) for all flaming ignition sources: any test specimen that smoulders until it is essentially consumed or that smoulders to the extremities of the specimen, i.e. to either side or to/through the full thickness of the specimen, within the duration of the test;
d) for flaming ignition sources 2 and 3: any test specimen that produces externally detectable amounts of smoke, heat or glowing 15 min after removal of the burner tube;
e) for flaming ignition sources 4, 5, 6 and 7: any test specimen that produces externally detectable amounts of smoke, heat or glowing 60 min after ignition of the crib;
f) any test specimen that, on final examination (see Clause 13), shows evidence of charring within the filling (other than discoloration) more than 100 mm in any direction, apart from upwards, from the nearest part of the original position of the source.