BS EN 13001-2:2011 pdf download – Crane safety General design Part 2: Load actions
This European Standard is to be used together with Part 1 and series of Part 3 and as such they specifygeneral conditions,requirements and methods to prevent hazards of cranes by design and theoreticalverification.
NOTE Specific requirements for particular types of crane are given in the appropriate European Standard for theparticular crane type.
The following is a list of significant hazardous situations and hazardous events that could result in risks topersons during normal use and foreseeable misuse. Clause 4 is necessary to reduce or eliminate the risksassociated with the following hazards:
a)rigid body instability of the crane or its parts (tilting and shifting);b)exceeding the limits of strength (yield ,ultimate,fatigue);
c)elastic instability of the crane or its parts (buckling, bulging);d)exceeding temperature limits of material or components;e)exceeding the deformation limits.
This European Standard is applicable to cranes which are manufactured after the date of approval by CEN ofthis standard and serves as reference base for the European Standards for particular crane types.
2Normative references
The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For datedreferences,only the edition cited applies. For undated references,the latest edition of the referenceddocument (including any amendments) applies.
EN 1990:2002, Eurocode — Basics of structural design
EN 13001-1,Cranes — General design — Part 1: General principles and requirements
EN ISO 12100:2010,Safety of machinery – General principles for design – Risk assessment and risk reduction(ISO 12100:2010)
ISO 4306-1:2007, Cranes – Vocabulary- Part 1: General
3Terms, definitions, symbols and abbreviations
3.1 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in EN 1990:2002 and ISO 4306-1:2007,Clause 6 apply.
3.2Symbols and abbreviations
For the purposes of this European Standard, the symbols and abbreviations given in Table 1 apply.
4 5afety requirements and/or measures
4.1 General
Machinery shall conform to the safety requirements and/or measures of this clause. In addition , the machine shall be designed according to the principles of EN ISO 12100 for hazards relevant but not significant which are not dealt with by this document (e .g. sharp edges).
4.2 Loads
4.2.1 General Introduction
The loads acting on a crane are divided into the categories of regular , occasional and exceptional as given in 4.2.1 .2 , and For the proof calculation of means of access loads only acting locally are given in 4.2.5.
These loads shall be considered in proof against failure by uncontrolled movement , yielding , elastic instability and , where applicable , against fatigue. Regular loads
a) Hoisting and gravity effects acting on the mass of the crane;
b) inertial and gravity effects acting vertically on the hoist load;
c) loads caused by travelling on uneven surface;
d) loads caused by acceleration of all crane drives;
4.2.1 .3 Occ asi onal lo ad s
a) Loads due to in-service wind;
b) snow and ice loads;
c) loads due to temperature variation;
d) loads caused by skewing.
N OT E Occas i ona l l oads occur infrequently. They are usually neglected in fa t igue assessmen t.
4.2.1 .4 E xc ept i onal load s
a) Loads caused by hoisting a grounded load under exceptional circumstances;
b) loads due to out-of-service wind;
c) test loads;
d) loads due to buffer forces;
e) loads due to tilting forces;
f) loads caused by emergency cut-out;
g) loads caused by failure of mechanism or components;
h) loads due to external excitation of crane foundation;
i) loads caused by erection and dismantling.
NOT E Exceptional l oads are al so infrequent and are likewi se usua ll y excluded from fatigue assessmen t.