BS ISO 14400:2021 pdf download – Road vehicles — Wheels and rims — Use, general maintenance and safety requirements and out-of-service conditions
This document specifies requirements for the use, general maintenance and safety of wheels and rims including multi-piece wheels and rims. This document defines their out-of-service conditions, such as cracked, worn and bent wheels and rim components. It is applicable to wheels intended for use on road as defined in ISO 3833 and off road vehicles. This document does not include mopeds and motorcycles.
2 Normative references
The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. ISO 3911, Wheels and rims for pneumatic tyres — Vocabulary, designation and marking
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 3911 apply.
ISO and IEC maintain terminology databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at
— IEC Electropedia: available at
4 Use and general maintenance requirements
WARNING — On multi-piece rims, the use of the wrong ring components can result in catastrophic wheel failure.
4.1 Wheel and wheel components
Wheels or parts of wheels which cannot be identified shall not be used even if they seem to have the correct functions and the identical dimensions. The characteristics of the wheel centre shall correspond exactly to vehicle parts, especially the axle hub and the brake, in order to guarantee a proper fitting and an effective load transmission.
A neutral non-aggressive mounting paste or liquid shall be used to lubricate the tyre beads. The hub, studs, nuts and the wheel attachment face shall be carefully cleaned.
In the case of multi-piece wheels, all contact surfaces shall be cleaned. Inspect parts for out-of-service conditions, see Clause 6. If cleaning does not restore the original condition for the mating surfaces or if the parts have any of the conditions described in Clause 6, the parts shall be replaced.
On the new vehicle and always after a wheel replacement, the mounting torque shall be verified after approximately 50 km of running and, where necessary, the wheel nuts shall be retightened. Periodic checks should also be carried out.
5 General safety requirements
After removal, wheels, rims, studs and nuts shall be checked closely to ensure that they are in good condition: namely that any fracture, crack, deformation, corrosion, heavy wear or other kind of nonconformity are not present. Moreover, no technical modification on the wheel shall be made. Repair by means of welding or by the addition of material on rims or wheel centres having breakage, fissures, cracks or high wears, shall not be made, as they can introduce additional stresses in the critical areas.
NOTE Further detailed information regarding safety recommendations can be found in the technical catalogues of the wheel and/or vehicle manufacturers.
6 Out-of-service conditions
Typical out-of-service conditions of wheels, rims and components are shown in the following tables and figures. The conditions of wheel centres are shown in Table 1 and Figures 2 to 14, and the conditions of rims and components are shown in Table 2 and Figures 15 to 29. Before checking, wheels shall be cleaned of mud and dirt. Wheels, rims and components in such conditions shall be removed from service and discarded. Rubber components (valves, sealing rings and O-rings) with excessive ageing, brittleness or cracks shall be removed from service and discarded.BS ISO 14400 pdf download.