BS ISO 22453:2021 pdf download – Exchange of information on rare earth elements in industrial wastes and end-of-life cycled products
This document specifies methods of information exchange between waste handlers and recyclers for rare earth elements (REEs) contained in industrial waste and end-of-life (EOL) products. This document facilitates the efficient recycling of REEs so that dependency on mining can be reduced by promotion of REE recycling.
This document also includes a generic life cycle of the REE recycling process.
2 Normative references
The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.
ISO 22444-1, Rare earth — Vocabulary — Part 1: Minerals, oxides and other compounds
ISO 22444-2, Rare earth — Vocabulary — Part 2: Metals and their alloys
ISO 22450, Recycling of rare earth elements — Requirements for providing information on industrial waste and end-of-life products
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 22444‑1, ISO 22444‑2,ISO 22450 and the following apply.
ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:
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industrial waste
waste produced by industrial activity, which includes any material that is rendered useless during a manufacturing process such as that of factories and industries
Note 1 to entry: Industrial waste originates from downstream processing operations of manufacturing industries. In this document, downstream operations refer to processes during the production stages such as machining, milling, chamfering, etc.
SOURCE: ISO 22450:2020, 3.5, modified — “mining and milling operations” has been deleted from the definition and Note 1 to entry has been replaced.]
life cycle
consecutive and interlinked stages of a product system, from raw material acquisition or generation from natural resources to final disposal
[SOURCE: ISO 14040:2006, 3.1, modified — “of a product system” has been added.]
6 Labelling methods
6.1 General There are many different types of labelling methods, including barcodes and RFID. One-dimensional (1D) barcodes are simple and widely used for providing information for products. However, they can represent only a small amount of data. In comparison, two-dimensional (2D) barcodes and RFID can include lots of data. Therefore, this document specifies the use of 2D barcodes, specifically QR codes and RFID, to record REE information.
6.2 QR codes 2D barcodes are a type of printable label with a low cost and a high storage capacity. There are several kinds of 2D barcodes including QR codes, PDF417, DataMatrix and MaxiCode. The specifications state that up to 2 900 bytes and 4 200 ASCII characters can be encoded in a single symbol. QR codes are the most suitable and efficient method for storing REE information due to their larger capacity for recording data and error correction function. QR creation and reading tools are commonly available and the cost of creation is very low to negligible. They have readability in different orientations, good processing speed, high durability against damage and a sufficient lifetime. Furthermore, they have almost no environmental impact and they can direct a user to online content. Their large storage capacity is particularly useful in this context, since there are 17 REEs plus numerous variables such as the name of the supplier, etc. (see Clause 7). All these data can easily be incorporated into a QR code.
6.3 RFID RFID tags contain an integrated circuit for storing and processing information. The tags contain the information in a non-volatile memory and can be read at a distance of hundreds of metres from the RFID reader, depending on the type of tag. RFID uses electromagnetic fields to identify RFID tags. Thus, unlike 2D barcodes, they do not need to be within the line of sight of the reader. Like QR codes, RFID tags can be read in different orientations and have a good processing speed. Although they are more expensive to create than QR codes, RFID tags have the function of real-time location tracking and are well suited to cylindrical objects.BS ISO 22453 pdf download.