BS ISO 37169:2021 pdf download – Smart community infrastructures — Smart transportation by run-through train/ bus operation in/between cities
4 Concept of smart transportation by run-through operation
4.1 City development process with transportation organization A large city has been developed by extending transportation services from the city centre to the outside in order to expand city areas for citizens’ lives and work. In old cities, they had gates to inspect visitors to a city to protect their citizens.
The places where the gates were placed have been developed to have the function of sub-city centres. By following such historical culture, some old cities have rail terminals in sub-centres where trains are not allowed to directly come into the metropolitan area beyond sub- centres. This manner avoids traffic congestion caused in the area by trains rushing into one point with their large number of passengers. Bus and streetcar or tram systems have been organized for the local transport in the metropolitan area to connect the city centre and sub-city centres. The subway was then introduced when the ground transportation does not provide sufficient capacity to meet demand. Thus, transportation services are often terminated in sub-centres where all passengers are forced to change trains whenever coming to/going out from a metropolitan area. Even if a city does not have such a historical background, many cities began investing in grade separated urban rail systems such as subways or “over ground” systems on aerial structures within crowded metropolitan areas to reduce surface congestion.
These systems also grew rapidly, where vast coordinate. Thus, most bus carriers prefer not to develop new routes extending outside of their current service territories. This type of service forces customers to make many inconvenient transfers from one bus carrier to another between service territories. Through bus services eliminate inconvenient forced transfers between service territories through the use of interchange or rental use agreements. These agreements would allow a bus driver from one carrier to drive a bus owned by a different carrier for use in licensed routes or service territories while passengers remain on-board the same bus. What bus routes or service territories licensed to different carriers are to run-through bus operation, railroad tracks owned by different rail carriers are to run- through train operation. Through bus services also streamline a carrier’s bus operations by reducing the number of dispatch offices in different service territories, thus lowering a carrier’s bus operations and maintenance costs. This operation also works when extending bus services for a long distance on licensed routes or territories.
Normally, a bus driver should change to another whenever driving for 200 to 300 km. By applying run-through operation, a bus carrier can dispatch a vehicle serviced to a distant destination by changing its own driver to those attached to other local carriers, even when the entire operation routes or territories are licensed to the vehicle-owner carrier.
4.3 Applicable city issues and advantage acceptors When the issue is a difficulty for citizens and city visitors in commuting between a metropolitan area of a city and the greater metropolitan area, who are forced to change trains due to rail service termination at terminals, this smart transportation can be applied. When the same situation occurs in bus services, smart transportation is still applicable. Smart transportation provides convenient transit for people in a city and travellers passing through hub-functioned cities, while it is also beneficial for the elderly, people with disabilities, and those accompanied by small children or travelling with heavy or voluminous luggage.
4.4 Satisfaction of SDGs by smart transportation Smart transportation satisfies the UN-Sustainable Development Goals, especially goal 3 ‘Good health and well-being’, goal 7 ‘Affordable and clean energy’, goal 8 ‘Decent work and economic growth’, goal 9 ‘Industry, innovation and infrastructure’, goal 10 ‘Reduced inequalities’, goal 11 ‘Sustainable cities and communities’, goal 12 ‘Responsible consumption and production’, goal 13 ‘Climate action’ and goal 15 ‘Life on land’.
5 Adoption of smart transportation by run-through operation
5.1 Objectives As discussed in 4.1, smart transportation solves city issues of rail service termination in a city and a city zone by providing citizens and city visitors with one-seat ride services by run-through train operation beyond terminals where rail services are terminated due to different rail carriers. Smart transportation is still applicable in bus services, the service license for which is normally strictly enforced. Through operation is not inter-modally but in the same transportation mode or by rail to rail or bus to bus operation.